Intercostal muscle strain results from extreme movement or rapid torso twisting. The muscles involved are located between the ribs, which can be very painful and may make people think that they have broken their ribs.
The most common cause of intercostal muscle strain is a rapid torso twist in sports like tennis and basketball. While a person can strain any muscle in the body, strains in the chest can be severely excruciating.
Intercostal muscle strains have three gradings:
- Grade I Strain – A mild strain damages some muscle fibers. This usually heals within 2 to 3 weeks.
- Grade II Strain – A moderate muscle strain extensively damages the muscle fibers. The muscle in grade II strain is not fully ruptured and can heal within 3 to 6 weeks.
- Grade III Strain – This severe injury occurs when the muscle is wholly damaged or ruptured. It usually requires a surgical repair. Grade III strain can heal up to 3 months.
Symptoms of Intercostal Muscle Strain
The typical symptom of intercostal muscle strain is pain in the side of the chest area, usually in the lower ribs. The sudden stabbing pain is described as sharp, accompanied by a pulling sensation. There are cases that the pain is experienced gradually.
In mild cases, the affected person can continue with the day-to-day tasks as the pain is still bearable. However, the symptoms may get worse. In severe cases, the affected person and athletes must stop performing their activities for enough time until the muscle has completely recovered. The symptoms of intercostal muscle strain may include:
- Sharp and stabbing pain
- Tenderness when touching the ribs area
- Constant and severe pain
- Sudden tearing pain
- Intensifies when moving, twisting, sneezing, or coughing
Swelling and Tenderness
- Injured parts are swollen
- The swollen area is filled with blood (Hematoma)
- Swollen ribs
- Tenderness over the ribs
- Painful to get up or down from a chair
- Pain when turning over in bed
- The muscles in the chest wall feel tight
- Difficulty moving the chest area as well as the arms
- Severe tightness in the injured area
An individual may also experience shortness of breath as the muscles feel too tight to let air in. Breathing becomes shallow and painful.
Causes of Intercostal Muscle Strain
The intercostal muscles are composed of many groups of muscles: internal intercostal muscles, external intercostals, subcostal muscles, and transverse thoracic muscles. These muscles are located between the ribs. They are responsible for moving the chest up and down. It also functions in forming and stabilizing the chest walls. When the strain is mild or moderate, intercostal muscles commonly recover for 4 to 6 weeks with proper physiotherapy. However, severe intercostal muscle strain will require a longer period before it recovers fully.
These are the most common causes of intercostal muscle strain.
1. Twisting the Upper Body
Sudden twisting of the upper body can strain the muscles. Overdoing it can also lead to intercostal muscle strain as it exerts too much pressure on the ribs. Some activities involving twisting the upper body are dance moves, yoga postures, wrestling, and other sports. Turning around to check if someone or something is behind you can strain the intercostal muscles.
2. Improper Warm up Before Training or Exercising
Not all individuals warm up properly, which may lead to more harm than good. Not warming up properly can increase the chance of torn muscles, which can be very painful. It may also take months, up to a year, before it completely recovers.
It is essential to protect your muscles. While many believe securing the body parts can prevent a torn muscle, the only way to avoid it is by performing proper warm-ups.
3. Swinging the Arms with Force
Swinging the arms with extreme force can stretch the ribs towards the arms. This condition is worse than suddenly twisting the upper body. Excessive pressure can tear the muscles, which will take months up to a year to recover.
4. Direct Blow to the Chest Wall
A blow to the chest wall can also strain the intercostal muscles. This can occur while playing sports, in car accidents, fights, or injuries received while working. A strong direct impact on the chest area can also bruise the chest wall, ribs, and muscles (chest contusion).
5. Over stretching
Stretching the muscles excessively can strain or rupture the intercostal muscles. Even when pulling gently, you can strain the muscles in your rubs. When the intercostal nerves get trapped between the forces and ribs, it can lead to painful spasms, strain, and nerve pain.
Excessive training or repetitive movement can also strain the muscles.
6. Not Enough Time to Heal the Muscles
When the muscle fibers are damaged, it usually takes two to six weeks to heal. While the pain is still bearable, giving your muscles enough time for a full recovery is essential. Using the muscles for daily activities, exercises, or sports can worsen the symptoms and lead to a complete muscle rupture.
7. Poor posture
Poor posture can strain the intercostal muscles and may cause them to become weak over time. It can also lead to chest, neck, and back pain. Not correcting the posture increases your risk of Sciatica or Piriformis Syndrome, Shoulder Impingement, and knee pain.
Other causes of an intercostal muscle strain are:
- The presence of joint and muscle stiffness
- Weakness and fatigue
- Lower back injury
10 Treatments for Intercostal Muscle Strain
Here are how to treat mild to moderate intercostal muscle strain.
After an injury, rest your muscles and do not perform intense physical activities. Give your muscles enough time to recover completely. Do not twist your torso to protect your muscles from further injury.
2. Hot and Cold
The cold temperature of ice can reduce pain and swelling. Apply an ice pack as soon as possible for ten to twenty minutes. Do not apply direct ice to the skin. Once the swelling disappears, you can use a heat compress on the area. Repeat this treatment three or more times daily to alleviate the inflammation quickly.
3. Brace or Splint the Area
Wrap or compress the area to decrease the swelling. Do not wrap it tightly, and ensure you loosen the bandage if it is too tight. Do this treatment during the first couple of days.
4. Therapeutic Exercise
Gentle stretching can strengthen the muscles, such as side bends with a bit of rotation. Get moving when the pain subsides. Not moving your body and muscles can increase the risk of further complications, such as muscle wasting, deep vein thrombosis, and chest infections.
Therapeutic exercises can restore mobility, strengthen the muscles, and improve the range of motion. It can also decrease the pressure on the neck, discs, and spinal joints.
5. Deep Breathing
Breathing can be painful due to chest and rib pain. This may result in pneumonia and can delay the healing process of the muscles due to a lack of oxygen. You will need to take deep breathing exercises to prevent this from happening.
- Slowly inhale and open the lungs as much as possible.
- Hold your breath for a few seconds.
- Exhale slowly.
Repeat these exercises once every hour to prevent pneumonia.
6. Pain Killers or Anti-inflammatory Drugs
Pain relievers can reduce inflammation and pain. One of the best is Paracetamol, which has minor side effects. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, aspirin, and naproxen are available over the counter.
Other NSAIDs for severe cases should be used only when prescribed by a doctor. Anti-inflammatories may delay healing during the first 2 to 3 days.
7. Physical Therapist
Help from a physical therapist can speed up the healing process of the muscles. They can also assist you in your exercises, providing soft tissue massage, joint mobilization, and gentle stretching to improve the spine’s range of motion, mobility, and alignment.
8. Neuromuscular Re-Education
This is a technique used by therapists to restore an individual’s normal movements. With neuromuscular re-education, you can improve your posture and learn the proper sitting, sleeping, and body mechanics to protect the injured parts of the body.
9. Epsom Salt Bath
Epsom salt is effective in alleviating muscular strains. It is composed of magnesium sulfate, which is a natural muscle relaxant. It can also alleviate both pain and swelling.
- Add 2 cups of Epsom salt to your warm bathwater.
- Soak your body in the water for at least thirty minutes.
- Repeat this treatment once a day until the strained muscle is recovered completely.
10. Tart Cherry Juice
Tart cherries are packed with antioxidants that can alleviate the pain and swelling of the strained muscle. It also contains high amounts of anti-inflammatory content that can deal with aches. Drink tart cherry juice once daily to improve your strength and alleviate pain and soreness.