As the seat of our consciousness, the brain makes us who we are. It is composed of 50 to 100 billion neurons and is the most complex organ in the human body. Medical experts usually divide the brain into two hemispheres, the left, and the right. Each hemisphere has four lobes, which are large areas of the brain with certain positions and functions.
The four lobes of the brain are temporal, frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. Although some textbooks refer to the limbic lobe as the fifth lobe, most medical experts do not mark this lobe as a separate area.
In this article, we will take a closer look at the location and function of the lobes of the brain.
Lobes of the Brain: Anatomy, Location and Functions
Your lobes of the brain include the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, and occipital lobe. They have different locations in the brain.
1. Frontal lobe
The frontal lobe is located in the front part of the brain. It extends back to a fissure called the central sulcus, which separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.
The frontal lobe is the emotional control center of the brain, and it can receive information signals from other lobes of the brain. The frontal lobe has many advanced functions in the brain. The main functions are focused on regulating social behavior, including:
- Attention, cognition, and problem-solving
- Language and personality expression
- Planning, reasoning, and judgment
- Concentrate and control attention
- Regulating emotions and impulse control
- Motor skill development and sequencing of complex movements
- Personality expression and social behaviors control
Since the frontal lobe is located at the front of the skull, it is more likely to be injured than other brain lobes. Damage to the frontal lobe can lead to personality changes, and patients often have difficulty controlling their emotions, sexual impulses, and risk-taking behaviors.
2. The parietal lobe
The parietal lobe is located in the middle section of the brain above the occipital lobe and behind the frontal lobe. It plays an important role in sensory perception and integration. The parietal lobe helps integrate sensory information including pressure, pain, touch, and temperature. Without the parietal lobe, we can not make sense of the world around us.
Here are some other functions of the parietal lobe include:
- Touch perception includes feeling pain, temperature, and pressure
- Visual perception and information processing
- Coordinate eye and hand movements
- Cognition and language processing
- Spatial reasoning and understanding of numbers
Although the parietal lobe is the smallest lobe of the brain, it is very important for information processing. Damage to the parietal lobe can result in language and perception disorders. It may also lead to problems of reading, writing, spatial reasoning, and understanding symbols.
3. The temporal lobe
Temporal Lobe is located below the parietal and occipital lobes, on the bottom of the brain below the lateral fissure. There are two temporal lobes close to the ears on both sides of the brain. It plays a key role in auditory processing, including receiving sound signals and processing the meaning of signals.
In addition, the temporal lobe is also responsible for converting short-term memories in the hippocampus and amygdala into long-term memories and processing new information with them.
There are some other functions of the temporal lobe include:
- Recognizing language including understanding and interpret the language
- Regulating unconscious emotional
- Process and store visual memories
- Assigning meaning to visual, smells, sounds, and memories
- Maintain homeostases, such as temperature and heart rate
Temporal lobe damage can lead to obstacles to understanding and production of language. Some injuries can also cause difficulty in processing visual perception, long-term memory problems, and personality changes.
4. The occipital lobe
The occipital lobe is located above the temporal lobe and beneath the parietal lobe. It is located in the region of the cerebral cortex, sits at the back portion of the brain. The occipital lobe is the brain’s processing hub responsible for processing visual information.
The study found that visual processing is the most significant function of the occipital lobe. There are some other functions of the occipital lobe include:
- Visual and navigation processing
- Motion, location, and spatial perception
- Color recognition
The occipital lobe is usually not easily damaged due to the protection of the skull. However, in some cases, occipital lobe damage can cause various visual problems including hallucinations, inability to recognize colors, and difficulty in understanding language. In severe cases, even if the eyes and related nerves are intact, damage to the occipital lobe may cause blindness.
5. The limbic lobe
Although some textbooks refer to the limbic lobe as a unique lobe of the brain, many medical experts still regard it as a group of organs that intersect with various regions of the brain. The limbic lobe surrounds the thalamus and located deep in the brain.
The limbic lobe is an evolutionarily older part of the brain that manages instinctive and unconscious emotions. It can collect information from the environment and send signals to the brain to help the brain process emotions.
In addition, the limbic system also contains many sub-organs, such as the hippocampus and amygdala. They are usually related to the function of the endocrine system. Therefore, the emotional response that affects the limbic system can also cause abnormalities in other parts of the body.
Other functions of the limbic lobes include:
- Coordinate spatial memory and social skills
- Deal with memory fragments
- Regulates attention and mood
- Coordinate the body’s emergency response
- Regulate appetite and libido
Injuries to the marginal lobes can cause functional diseases in other parts of the body, which require a detailed diagnosis.
In this article, we discussed in detail the lobes of the brain and their functions. Understanding this information can help you better understand our brains. If you experience certain symptoms mentioned in the article, seek medical help immediately.