Parts of the Ear: Anatomy and Physiology of the Ear

The ear is an important organ in the human sensory system. It can convert sound waves into signals that the brain can interpret. In addition, the fluid in the ears also helps the body to coordinate and maintain a sense of balance. The ear is composed of three parts, which are divided into outer ear, middle ear and inner ear. Each part has its own special function.

If any part of the system is damaged, it may cause difficulty in hearing and even hearing loss. This article discusses parts and components of ear and their functions. Understanding the structure of the ear and the function of each part can help you keep your ears healthy and safe.

Parts and Components of Ear and Their Functions

The ear is composed of three parts: outer ear, middle ear and inner ear.

1. Ear Anatomy – Outer Ear

The outer ear is the visible part of the ear. It is made of meat and cartilage and is located on the top part of the skull. The outer ear can effectively protect the eardrum, collect sound waves and transmit the sound waves to the middle ear. The composition of the external ear includes the auricle, the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane.


The auricle is the cartilage covered by the skin on both sides of the head. It can collect sound waves and transmit them to the middle ear.

Ear canal

Ear canal is also called the auditory canal; it is a tube that extends inward from the outer ear about an inch in length. The skin of the ear canal is very sensitive to pressure and pain. At the same time, it also produces earwax to prevent debris from entering the middle ear.


The tympanic membrane is a transparent gray membrane that receives and amplifies sound waves. At the same time, the tympanic membrane separates the middle ear from the outer ear.




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